Another list of questions that are supposed to stump “evolutionists” in our tracks. I think I had to use wikipedia to answer like one of them (the one about the chronology of insect and flowering plant evolution), the rest I answered off the top of my head.
“If the topic of evolution has never come up in your witnessing encounters, it undoubtedly will at some point. Christians need not be intimidated by it. Instead, here are some questions you can ask to help an evolutionist think through these issues while gently (yet effectively) exposing the irrationality of the theory itself.”
Actually all you are doing is highlighting your own ignorance and hoping the other person will be as ignorant as you.
“1) Where did the space for the universe come from? 2) Where did matter come from?”
I combined the two because the answer is the same – I don’t know and neither do you, and this has nothing to do with darwinian evolution.
“3) How does a strictly material, constantly changing universe give us immaterial, universal, unchanging laws (such as laws of logic, science, and morality)?”
The universe isn’t necessarily “strictly material”, material is just all that we can empirically observe and know to exist objectively. And the “laws” of logic, science and morality are all three very different abstract concepts. Laws of logic and physics are deduced from observation and are tentative, “laws” of physics are only constant and unchanging in principle, and many have been shown to not actually be universal or constant, such as newton’s “laws” of motion which break down at high speeds or the “law” of non-contradiction which ceases to apply in a universe where time, size, and velocity are relative. These “laws” are man-made symbolic representations of the world, and they are no more immutable than we are. If you mean why does the universe have the most basic known properties that it has, see the answer to questions 1 and 2.
“4) How did matter get so perfectly organized?”
It didn’t. If you drop the word “perfect” (bodies that get cancer and planets with fault lines that cause massive disasters that kill millions of people are hardly “perfectly” organized), and just ask how did matter get organized then my response is that the question is too vague – ask a more specific question and I can help you, but I am not going to spend an hour describing dozens of atomic, biological, chemical, geological etc processes that produce different things. How a mountain forms and how a snowflake form are two very different things that require different answers.
“5) Where did the energy come from to do all the organizing?”
See the answer to questions 1-3.
“6) When, where, why, and how did randomness become non-random?”
I don’t know that it ever was non-random, or that anything even is non-random. We call things random when we lack the ability to predict them. In principle with enough data and enough smarts anything is predictable and non-random.
“7) When, where, why, and how did life arise from non-living matter?”
Plants turn non-living matter into living matter every day, non-living matter and living matter are the same thing – the iron in your blood and the iron in the steel of a golf club are identical. If you mean how exactly did life begin, we don’t know since the earliest life would not contain the fortified cell structures that are hard enough to fossilize and leave remnants, so the fossil record goes cold around 3.4 billion years ago. And the earliest fossil life is in the oceans to answer the where question..
“8) When, where, why, and how did life learn to reproduce itself?”
Learning in the sense of mental activity evolved several billion years later, the first life would’ve simply been a chemical process. A germ doesn’t need to learn to reproduce, and is incapable of learning anything.
“9) Why would natural selection favor sexual reproduction over cell division, which is more efficient and less costly genetically?”
Sexual reproduction allows an individual to gain successful genes from many lineages maximizing it’s chance of survival and allowing a population to adapt to many selective pressures simultaneously. The mathematical speed of evolution is greatly enhanced by sexual reproduction which is evident in many evolution simulation programs you can download free to experiment virtually with the math of natural selection and virtually “evolve” things (including in some cases virtual functional machines).
“10) With what did the first cell capable of sexual reproduction reproduce?”
Other cells presumably.
“11) Why would any plant or animal want to reproduce more of its kind since this would only make more mouths to feed and, thereby, decrease the chances of survival?”
As opposed to what, just dying out? I somehow think natural selection would favor starvation over automatic extinction. And natural selection is not a conscious process of species thinking about what they want or deciding what is best. As a science nerd who knows about this stuff it is always depressing to read rants like this posted by people who are bashing science and who, halfway through their rant betray the fact that they literally have no idea what the science they’re opposed to is about at all. Natural selection is the process of genes getting passed on at different rates because the genes themselves are useful or harmful, no thought or logic or “hmm, this would be a good idea” required.
“12) Which of the following evolved first and how long did it work without the others?:
(a) The digestive system, the food to be digested, the appetite, the ability to find and eat the food, the digestive juices, or the body’s resistance to its own digestive juices (stomach, intestines, etc.)?”
The food to be digested obviously, since predation is one organism eating another organism the organism must first exist before predation is an option. As for the rest, any organ system does not begin in it’s most tricked out, complex state any more than the first computer had a DVD drive. And just as my computer needs a hard drive to function but the earliest computers didn’t need a hard drive to function modern configurations of organs can become irreducibly complex by gradual modification the same way technologies do. As for the stomach resisting it’s stomach juices it doesn’t, your stomach lining digests itself perpetually.
“(b) The drive to reproduce or the ability to reproduce?”
Sex drive is a behavioral mental characteristic of higher animals which would not have been present in early microbial lifeforms which lacked brains just like bacteria do. Early life would’ve reproduced by chemical reactions just like mindless microbes do today.
“(c) The lungs, the mucous lining to protect them, the throat, or the perfect mixture of gases to be breathed into the lungs?”
There is no “perfect” mixture of gases, the atmosphere is not consistent anywhere on the earth’s surface. And the answer is the throat, followed by the lungs and then the various add-ons to them.
“(d) The termite or the Trichonympha symbiotes that live in its intestines and actually digest the cellulose?”
The termite – it would logically have had the ability to digest it’s own food and later lost it as a result of the effectiveness of the symbiotic relationship, the same way humans btw have largely lost the ability to digest food since the trillions of bacteria in our intestines do such a good job of it.
“(e) The plants or the insects that live on and pollinate them?”
Plants pre-date insects by many millions of years and flowering plants evolved several hundred million years after the first insects.
“(f) The bones or the ligaments, tendons, blood supply, and muscles to move the bones?”
Bones first emerge in the fossil record in the cambrian period, before which there were plenty of animals that could move around and thus had muscles, blood etc. Though if by blood supply you mean a heart pumping blood our four chambered heart evolved from the three chambered heart of the reptile which evolved from the two chambered heart of the fish, which evolved from simpler species like crustaceans, some of which have hearts and others do not. The first heart was most likely simply an accidental by-product of musculature, every time a fish wagged it’s tail it pumped a little blood – this mimics the lymph system in humans today which circulates all the non-blood fluid in your body by your muscles pressing on different parts of the body and forcing fluid from one region to the other – this is why a doctor gives you a shot near the butt, aka the gliteus maximus – the largest and most often used muscle in the human body. Short of injecting it in to a vein it’s the most effective way to circulate it through the body.
“(g) The nervous system, repair system, or hormone system?”
I’m not sure what you mean by “repair” system but I suspect the answer is the nervous system, though I could be wrong. I don’t know a lot about the evolution of hormones.
“(h) The immune system or the need for it?”
Well the first virus would necessarily pre-date the first immune system since natural selection is reactive, not pro-active.
And yes, I also know which came first, the chicken or the egg.